4

 

ASSESSING ACTION AND RESULTS

AGAINST DEVELOPMENT-RELATED G8 COMMITMENTS

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION CONTRIBUTION

 

 

1. AID AND AID EFFECTIVENESS

The commitments of the G8 and other donors will lead to an increase in official development assistance to Africa of $25 billion a year by 2010, more than doubling aid to Africa compared to 2004.

…. As we confront the development challenges in Africa, we recognize there is a global development challenge facing the world as a whole. (G8 Gleneagles Summit Africa Communique, 27-28)  

ACTION: Russia has increased ODA substantially and attaches utmost importance to strengthening bilateral and multilateral collaboration in the CIS, including within the Eurasian Economic Community. Our country proposed to create a new crisis response mechanism for cooperation– EURASEC Anti-crisis Fund in the amount of USD 10 billion, 7.5 billion of which is the contribution of the Russian Federation. This Fund will support low-income countries on the terms of ODA criteria.

Russia Total ODA Allocated:

2004: 100,00  million USD

2005: 101,30  million USD

2006: 101,80  million USD

2007: 210,78  million USD

2008: 220,00  million USD

2009: 785,02  million USD

 

1.2 AID EFFECTIVINESS

?     We will implement and be monitored on all commitments we made in the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness, including enhancing efforts to untie aid; disbursing aid in a timely and predictable fashion, through partner country systems where possible; increasing harmonisation and donor co-ordination, including more programme-based approaches (G8 Gleneagles Summit Africa Communique, 32)

 

ACTION: The Russian Federation is committed to the principles of the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action. Since 2007 Russian development assistance is provided under the Concept Note adopted by the President of the Russian Federation. This is a policy framework that reaffirms sustainable poverty reduction as the main objective of Russian participation in the international development co-operation and the MDGs as the basic reference point. The official title of the Concept Note is “Russia’s Participation in the International Development Assistance”.

The Concept Note promotes the aid effectiveness-principles of ownership & alignment, complementarity, predictability & transparency, accountability and monitoring.

The major part of Russian ODA is provided through the multilateral channels including UN system organizations and the World Bank in the form of untied voluntary contributions. So more than 75% of Russian ODA is provided as untied aid.

One of orientations of Russia is to improve aid effectiveness and support the use of sectoral and general budget support (GBS). We see the GBS as a way to streamline the process of reforms aiming at poverty reduction and policy stabilisation. Russia intends to augment the volumes of GBS where it is appropriate. In 2009 GBS exceeded the amount of  $150 million.

 

2.0 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

2.1. REMITTANCES

? We will work to achieve in particular the objective of a reduction of the global average costs of transferring remittances from the present 10% to 5% in 5 years through enhanced information, transparency, competition and cooperation with partners. (L’Aquila,  2009: Responsible Leadership for a Sustainable Future 134)

ACTION: Taking into account the per cent of immigrant in the labor force of the Russian Federation the public policy aiming at transferring costs reduction is in the high priority for the last years. The average costs of transferring remittances are less than 5%. So this is fully in line with the G8 commitments.

 

2.2 TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

? Work towards the objective of duty-free and quota-free access for all products originating from the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), including African LDCs, and, to this end, examine how to facilitate the fuller and more effective use of existing market access arrangements. (Kananaskis 2002: G8 Africa Action Plan, 3.3)             

ACTION: Russia has flexible, simple and transparent rules of origin. Since 2000, Russia has adopted a list of products from LDCs which allows nearly 100% for duty and quota free access for LDCs.

 

3. HEALTH

3.1 HEALTH FINANCING AND STRENGTHENING HEALTH SYSTEMS

? We will continue our efforts towards the goal of providing at least a projected US$ 60 billion to fight infectious diseases and improve health systems. (Heiligendamm 2007: Growth and Responsibility in Africa 48, L’Aquila, 2009: Responsible Leadership for a Sustainable Future 125)

ACTION:

Russia Total ODA Allocated to Health (is compiled in accordance with the OECD methodology):

2006 –   20,35 million USD

2007 – 102,17 million USD

2008 – 110,29 million USD

2009 –  90,72 million USD

 

? Mobilizing support for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (St. Petersburg 2006: Fight Against Infectious Disease, 2)

ACTION: In 2006 Russian government endorsed a decision to become a pure donor of the GFATM by reimbursement of $217 millions that were disbursed for projects in Russian Federation. The whole sum of fund committed by Russia to the GFATM is $257 millions. The amount of $235 millions has been disbursed already.

Contributions to the Global Fund

2001-2008 - 155,98 million USD

            2009 -   79,03 million USD

 

? Building on the valuable G8 Global HIV/AIDS vaccine enterprise, increasing direct investment and taking forward work on market incentives, as a complement to basic research, through such mechanisms as Public Private Partnerships and Advance Purchase Commitments to encourage the development of vaccines, microbicides and drugs for AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other neglected diseases. (G8 Gleneagles Summit Africa Communique, 18e)

ACTION: The Russian Federation also put political and programmatic efforts to boost the development of vaccines, microbicides and drugs for infectious diseases and provides assistance in this area to CIS countries. $38 millions were set aside in 2008-2010 for HIV vaccine research and coordination of this work with CIS countries. 12 scientific conferences on vaccines and microbicides with participation of scientists from developed and developing countries were organized under the leadership of the Russian Federation during 2005-2009.

Russia has a political leadership in pushing forward the infectious diseases research agenda in intergovernmental organizations such as Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), EuroAsEC and CIS. 

 

The Russian Federation provides a wide political support to the innovative financing mechanisms to encourage research and development for vaccines and drugs. Together with some G8 partners the Russia has committed $80 millions under AMC initiative for the period 2010-2018.

 

? Supporting capacity building in the most vulnerable countries in disease-surveillance and early warning systems, including enhancement of diagnostic capacity and virus research (St. Petersburg, 2006: Fight Against Infectious Diseases, 13)

ACTION: Russia leads the work in CIS region aimed on coordination, technical and methodological support of disease surveillance systems. Programs were developed and implemented to build the capacity of health systems, including laboratory network in partner countries.

In response to the threat of influenza pandemic the Russian Federation in 2006-2009 contributed $45,8 millions to a comprehensive program aimed on capacity building of health systems in CIS region.

Leading Russian scientific-research institutions on a permanent basis provides trainings on disease surveillance, laboratory control and containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases.

 

The Russian Federation disbursed up to US$60 millions in 2007-2010 to strengthen existing networks aimed at prevention and mitigating epidemiological consequences of natural, man-made disasters and humanitarian crises, including through effective use of rapid response teams and building partner countries own capacities in this area.

 

3.2. FIGHTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES

? We must also increase our efforts in the fight against other preventable diseases...particularly by increasing the volume and quality of medical research on neglected diseases in developing countries (St. Petersburg 2006: Fight Against Infectious Disease, 31)

ACTION: Under the G8 Presidency Russia prioritized the infectious diseases in the agenda. This effort resulted in first ever separate statement by the leaders about fighting infectious diseases. The St. Petersburg leaders’ statement covered the whole range of threats put by infectious diseases.

 

In 2009 the Russian Federation developed and launched the 4 years program with a 21 million USD commitment. This program is expected to boost researches and enhance surveillance on neglected tropical diseases in African and Central Asia Countries.  In particular program components will be implemented in Ethiopia, Angola, Tanzania, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Under the framework of this program new diagnostics for NTD’s will be developed, own research and surveillance capacities of partner countries will be enhanced, health personnel from partner countries will be trained and laboratory equipment will be procured and set in partner countries.

 

? HIV/AIDS: Develop and implement a package for HIV prevention, treatment and care, with the aim of as close as possible to universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment for all who need it by 2010

(G8 Gleneagles Summit Africa Communique, 18d)

ACTION: The Russian Federation takes a leadership role in development and implementation of policies to pursue the universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care across the Eastern Europe and Central Asia. That includes assistance to CIS countries in the field of HIV-prevention and surveillance. Russia chairs the CIS council on HIV/AIDS. Two consequent 5-years Joint programs to fight HIV/AIDS in CIS countries were developed under the Russian leadership and approved by the CIS heads of governments (2002-2006 and 2009-2013). Russia pushes HIV/AIDS to the top of the agenda in cooperation with other regional intergovernmental organizations (SCO and EurAsEC).  

 

Russian Federation in partnership with UNAIDS and GFATM organized and hosted biggest regional HIV/AIDS forum – Eastern Europe and Central Asia AIDS Conference (EECAAC) in 2006, 2008 and 2009, with more then 2500 participants from more then 50 countries. The Russian Government is a major donor of EECAAC.

 

? Malaria: Working with Africa countries to scale up action against malaria to reach 85% of the vulnerable populations with the key interventions that will save 600,000 children’s lives a year by 2015 and reduce the drag on African economies (Gleneagles 2005: Africa 18(g), reiterated at St. Petersburg, 2006: Fight Against Infectious Diseases 34)

ACTION: Russia has allocated $20 million in 2007 to provide financial and technical support to strengthen malaria control activities in Africa, including USD 15 million through the World Bank Malaria Booster Program to co-finance IDA operations in Zambia and in Mozambique. And $4 millions to WHO Global Malaria Program, to support malaria interventions in 4 African countries. The Russian contribution aligns with the partner countries’ national plans to fight malaria and closely coordinates with other donors contributions to this area filling the gaps identified by national authorities.

 

The funds have contributed to major impact on the malaria problem, especially in Zambia, through the procurement of approximately 300,000 LLINs, the scale-up of the insecticide residual spraying (IRS) campaign, expansion of monitoring and evaluation. The grant monies are over 70% disbursed and the rest of the funds have been committed. Join investments have clearly contributed to the fact that malaria is no longer the leading cause of young child deaths in Zambia. Over 41% of children under-five are now sleeping under bednets, 66 % of pregnant women are receiving intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp) as part of routine antenatal care.

 

Progress made on key malaria indicators in Zambia:

% of Householders with one bednet increased from 48% (2006) to 72% (2008)

Under five child mortality decreased from 168 (2006) to 119 (2008)

% children with parasitemia decreased from 28,8%(2006) to 10,2%(2008)

% children with anemia decreased from 28,8% (2006) to 10,2%(2008)

 

 

4. FOOD AND SECURITY

?  Reverse the overall decline of aid and investment in the agricultural sector, and achieve significant increases in support of developing country initiatives, including – in Africa – through full and effective implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP) (Toyako, Statement on Global Food Security, 7)

? Increase investment for food security, including additional resources for food and development,  by mobilizing, with other donors,  US $20 billion over three years through the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI)  (L’Aquila 2009: Joint Statement on Global Food Security, 12)

 

 

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Agricultural sector

 

0,0 

7,3 

7,3 

7,3 

7,3 

12,0 

12,0 

Other food security

 

0,0 

0,1 

0,1 

0,1 

0,1 

1,6 

1,6 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dev. Food Aid/Food Security Ass.

0,0 

0,0 

4,5 

7,0 

10,4 

98,5 

3,0 

Emergency food aid                                                        

11,0 

11,0 

15,0 

26,0 

37,5 

30,0 

30,0 

Total

 

11,0 

18,4 

26,9 

40,4 

55,3 

142,1 

46,6 

ACTION:  Russia has consistently increased amount of emergency food aid, primarily, for the developing countries, both through bilateral channels and through relevant international organizations and agencies, such as WPP, UNHCR and ICDO - International Civil Defense Organization. In 2009 Russia contributed, both through bilateral channels as well as relevant international organizations 47,5mln. USD on food aid, agricultural and rural development measures. Russia was among the first to contribute in 2008, in a single transfer, a US$ 7,0 mln. USD donation to the Multilateral Trust Fund under the Global Food Crisis Response Program (GFRP), established by the World Bank. Russia has transferred another 5 mln. USD to GFRP in 2009.

 

 

?Support reform of international agricultural and food security architecture and establishment of  global

partnership. (L’Aquila 2009: Leaders’ Declaration, 113-114)

 

ACTION:  Russia stands on the position that reform of international agricultural and food security architecture is crucial. Russia has implemented a policy of establishing a global partnership in this context especially through the multilaterals. It supports the activities and programs of the World Bank, WFP, and International Civil Defence Organization in the sphere of preventing food crises.

 

Russia supports the strategic aims and top priority tasks of FAO reform. In terms of assistance for the FAO adaptation to the present realities and strengthening its potential, Russia pledged to contribute in 2009-2011 4,17 million USD (1,4 million USD in 2009) for introduction of the Russian language as the official FAO language. That would open for millions of farmers and other people of agricultural vocation in many of European and Asian countries, including the developing countries, the world of the FAO expertise and experience, in particular, guidelines, standards, best practices and technologies.

 

Russia is committed to the adoption of a complex of short-term, mid-term and long-term measures pursuant to the recommendations by the Comprehensive Framework for Action (CFA), developed by the UN High Level Task Force, aimed at the ensuring of food security and support of agriculture at the developing countries. At that, Russian National Strategy for International Development Assistance provides the optimal combination between the assistance and the development aid, the latter being targeted at food security capacity-building, at the beneficiary countries.

 

Russia supports CGIAR reform aimed to implement effective research in the fields of agriculture policy and environment and provide clear results to ensure conditions for sustainable food security in developing countries. Russia intends to make financial contribution to CGIAR, starting from 2010.

 

5. EDUCATION

? The G8 will continue to work with partners and other donors to meet shortfalls in all FTI endorsed countries (Heiligendamm 2007: Growth and Responsibility in Africa, 38)

ACTION:

According with the OECD agreed reporting standards Russia has provided the following amounts of bilateral support to FTI-endorsed countries.

2008: 13,82  million USD

2009: 11,66  million USD

 

Since 2008 Russia provides Russian Education Aid for Development (READ) program in cooperation with the World Bank. Russian Government has approved 32 million USD contribution for the World Bank Trust Fund for 2008-2012 period. READ program is aimed to assist the achievement of MDG Goals 2 and 6.

A key objective of READ is to help countries strengthen the capacity of institutions that are responsible for measuring student learning outcomes or for using the information from those assessments to improve teaching and learning.

 

We tackle the problems of education and implement initiatives in this sphere partly through the multilaterals channels and other donor partnerships. Such approach guarantees full coordination with other donors and alignment with the partner-countries national education development strategies. Also it’s a good possibility to provide assistance to the fragile states/post conflict states in the most effective manner. 

For example, Russia has provided assistance for Afghanistan through the special WB trust fund mechanism aiming on Afghanistan reconstruction, including in the education sector. 

 

? We, along with other donors, are committed to a unified approach, mobilizing predictable bilateral and multilateral resources in order to fulfil the financial shortfall estimated by the FTI at $1.2 billion over the coming 18 months (L’Aquila 2009: Responsible Leadership for Sustainable Growth, 128)

ACTION: Since G8-2006 in St. Petersburg, education sector development, including the basic education and the quality of education in particular, is a high priority for Russia. The Russian Federation has pledged to EFA/FTI 10,2 million USD for the period 2006 -2013, with $6 million USD disbursed to date refers to the Catalytic Fund. As far as EPDF is concerned Russia fully has disbursed its commitments under the agreement (5,2 million USD) for EPDF for the period 2006-2010.

 

 

Contribution to FTI 2006-2009 - 10,2 million USD, including:

Catalytic Fund                                EPDF

2006: 1,0  million USD   

2007: 2,0  million USD                          2007: 1,2 million USD

2008: 1,0  million USD                          2008: 2,0 million USD

2009: 2,0  million USD                          2009: 1,0 million USD

 

6. PEACE AND SECURITY

? Train, and where appropriate equip, some 75,000 troops by 2010, to take part in peace support operations worldwide with a sustained focus on Africa (Sea Island, Gleneagles 8)

ACTION: In 2005-2009 the Russian Federation trained 226 UN peacekeepers and military observers, including representatives from African countries. Two month course included field exercise. In 2008-2009 1090 Russian military personnel was trained for participation in the UN PKO.

 

? Increase the G8 contribution to the training of formed police units for use in peace operations

(Sea Island, 2004)

ACTION: Since 2005 the Russian Federation has provided training nearly for 200 civilian police officers from 41 countries, including 170 from the African continent, at the Ministry’s of the Interior Peacekeeping training centre in Domodedovo.

The Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation in cooperation with the UN DPKO organized in May-July 2009 a training course for 50 law enforcement and mobile teams officers deployed as part of formed police units. Since 2006 Russia also has provided training for 83 Afghan anti-drug police officers.

 

? Development of a transportation and logistics support arrangement for peace operations (Kananaskis, Africa Action Plan L’Aquila 129; Heligendamm (40,42); Sea Island 2004)

ACTION: The Russian Federation has deployed two aviation units to UNMIS and MINURCAT and provides a broad range of aviation services for other peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations, accounting for 14% of the total of peacekeeping transportation needs.

In August 2009 the Ministry of the Emergency of the Russian Federation together with the German government handed over to Afghanistan two medication evacuation helicopters – total cost of this operation is 7,42 million USD.

In December 2009 the Russian Federation delivered 50 KAMAZ trucks and 2 fire-engines to Afghanistan.

 

? Allocate grant financing for reconstruction needs, including the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) into civilian society of former combatants Gleneagles

ACTION: Since 2008 the Russian Federation provides annually USD 2 mln. to the UN Peacebuilding Fund. In 2009 Russia provided over 7 million USD as material-technical and financial aid for the International Civil Defence Organization for humanitarian mine clearing of territories. The Russian aid helped to support constant work of five national unmining brigades.

According to Russian-Lebanese agreement in 2006 Russia has built and passed to Lebanese side 9 bridges. 98 Lebanese personnel were trained in the field of construction and engineering.

Russia disbursed:

2008:    5,00 million USD

2009:  14,26 million USD

 

6. ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY

?We will help vulnerable countries overcome the macroeconomic shocks related to energy prices, and the longer term challenge of facilitating access to energy for the poorest populations. (St Petersburg 44)

ACTION: In 2006 Russia supported the IMF’s Exogenous Shock Facility. Russian contribution to the program is more than 45 million USD during 2006-2010.

2006:    2,98 million USD

2007:  10,61  million USD

2008:  10,82 million USD

2009:  10,92 million USD

 

? Facilitate development of local energy resources and technology transfer in the areas of energy efficiency, energy saving, renewable energy to contribute to poverty reduction and long-term energy sustainability in developing countries. 61St. Petersburg 49, 50 (Global energy security)

ACTION: Under the G8 Presidency in 2006, energy poverty was put on the agenda. As part of its efforts Russia contributed $30 million to the multilateral non-profit “Global Village Energy Partnership-International” promoting access of poor countries and population to energy. The contribution was aimed at launching the activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since then GVEP-International expanded its activities to 21 countries worldwide. Russian hydro energy company JSC “RusHydro” which is the world’s second is exploring possibilities in constructing small hydropower stations in Latin America in the framework of GVEP-I work program.

2007:  5  million USD

2008:  5 million USD

2009:  10 million USD